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Main article: Pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human civilization from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
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The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley kilometres 62 mi southwest tranzacționarea forturilor robotului Bogotá. Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca.
Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El AbraTibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley.
That would have been during the earliest known human occupation of the area now known as Colombia. Between and BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies; fixed settlements were established, and pottery appeared.
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Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the MuiscaZenúQuimbayaand Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques. The Muisca inhabited mainly the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau Altiplano Cundiboyacense where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato, quinoa, and cotton, and traded gold, emeraldsblankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring nations.
Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. In Augusthe founded provisionally its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatáand named it "Santa Fe". The name soon acquired a suffix and was called Santa Fe de Bogotá.
Sebastián de Belalcázarconqueror of Quitotraveled north and founded Caliinand Popayánin ;  from toGerman conquistador Nikolaus Federmann crossed the Llanos Orientales and went over the Cordillera Oriental in a search for El Doradothe "city of gold". Indigenous allies were crucial to conquest, as well as to creating and maintaining empire.
Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves; therefore, the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants mostly from PortugalFranceEnglandand the Dutch Empire the license to trade enslaved people to their overseas territories. The Viceroyalty of New Granada was created inthen temporarily tranzacționarea forturilor robotului, and then re-established in Its capital was Santa Fé de Bogotá.
This Viceroyalty included some other provinces of northwestern South America that had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama.
So, Bogotá became one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico Citythough it remained somewhat backward compared to those two cities in several economic and logistical ways.
It classified plants and wildlife, and founded the first astronomical observatory in the city of Santa Fe de Bogotá.
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In addition, historical figures in the process of independence in New Granada emerged from the expedition as the astronomer Francisco José de Caldasthe scientist Francisco Antonio Zeathe zoologist Jorge Tadeo Lozano and the painter Salvador Rizo. Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, there were several rebel tranzacționarea forturilor robotului against Spanish rule, but most were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation.
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The last one that sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around and culminated in the Colombian Declaration of Independenceissued on 20 Julythe day that is now celebrated as the nation's Independence Day. Domingue present-day Haiti inwhich provided some support to an eventual leader of this rebellion: Simón Bolívar. Francisco de Paula Santander also would play a decisive role.
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A movement was initiated by Antonio Nariñowho opposed Spanish centralism and led the opposition against the Viceroyalty. The viceroyalty was restored under the command of Juan Sámanowhose regime punished those who participated in the patriotic movements, ignoring the political nuances of the juntas.
After a two-year civil war inthe " United States of Colombia " was created, lasting untilwhen the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia.
The war ended with a peace deal brokered by the League of Nations.
The League finally awarded the disputed area to Colombia in June Its cause was mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which subsequently ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April It was the only Latin American country to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States.
Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy.
Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. This was part of the U. Mercenaries and multinational corporations such as Chiquita Brands International are some of the international actors that have contributed to the violence of tranzacționarea forturilor robotului conflict.
Further information: History of Edmonton and Timeline of Edmonton history The earliest known inhabitants arrived in the area that is now Edmonton around BC and perhaps as early as 12, BC when an ice-free corridor opened as the last glacial period ended and timber, water, and wildlife became available in the region. It was the third to be built within present day Edmonton. ByTranzacționarea forturilor robotului Edmonton was established on the river's north bank as a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company, near the mouth of the Sturgeon River close to present-day Fort Saskatchewan. The area covered by the treaty represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Edmonton area's fertile soil and cheap land attracted settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre.
The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society.